Most length and area measurements such as the measurements of long bone dimensions (length, inter and external width) are accomplished reliably by such traditional techniques as a ruler or sliding digital caliper or sliding caliper. Intraobserver error can result from the use of calipers, but can be lessened with use of an electronic digitizer. A specially designed electronic caliper has also been repoted. A magnifying glass to measure radiograps has also been demonstrated as useful. This technique has been reported to provide greater reliability and precision than caliper measurement when measuring bone width corital thickness.
According to a recent report, a digital cordinatometer- goniometer connected to an optical collinmator allows angles and bone lengths to be measured. This new technique allows for location of the bone axis and torsion values using a reference plane and symmetry and tangency criteria. Findings are that angular measures are more precise than through use of traditional instruments.
The archaeological collection of Peco Pueblo femora and tibiae were examined through use of an electronic digitizer and computer program. Geometric cross sections were examined through use of an electronic digitizer and computer program which divided the total bone area of interest into a series of small geometric shapes which were subsequently summed to determine the total composite properties. Cross sections were scale and electronically digitized with subperiosteal and endosteal boundaries manually traced with a stylus. The geometric data generated from these bone samples pointed to specific in vivo loading of the lower limb which served as a natural protective mechanism to manage effectively the stress-strain loadings sustained by the Pecos Pueblo people during this period of history.